"Black Wall Street, the name fittingly given to one of the most affluent all-Black communities in America, was bombed from the air and burned to the ground by mobs of envious Whites. In a period spanning fewer than 12 hours, a once thriving Black business district in northern Tulsa lay smoldering – a model community destroyed and a major African-American economic movement resoundingly defused.
The night’s carnage left some 3,000 African Americans dead and over 600 successful businesses lost. Among these were 21 churches, 21 restaurants, 30 grocery stores and two movie theaters, plus a hospital, a bank, a post office, libraries, schools, law offices, a half dozen private airplanes and even a bus system. As could have been expected, the impetus behind it all was the infamous Ku Klux Klan, working in consort with ranking city officials and many other sympathizers.
The best description of Black Wall Street, or Little Africa as it was also known, would be to compare it to a mini Beverly Hills. It was the golden door of the Black community during the early 1900s, and it proved that African Americans could create a successful infrastructure. That’s what Black Wall Street was all about.
The dollar circulated 36 to 100 times, sometimes taking a year for currency to leave the community. Now a dollar leaves the Black community in 15 minutes. As for resources, there were Ph.D.s residing in Little Africa, Black attorneys and doctors. One doctor was Dr. Berry, who owned the bus system. His average income was $500 a day, hefty pocket change in 1910…”
Illustrated Cynicism by Eduardo Salles
Egypte + Jérôme Galland Photographer
Power to the People: Remembering the Black Panther Party
October 25, 2013Forty-seven years ago this month the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was formed in Oakland, California. For almost 16 years the Party represented one of the most influential radical, progressive organizations in the history of the U.S."This country is a nation of thieves. It stole everything it has, beginning with Black people. The U.S. cannot justify its existence as the policeman of the world any longer…I don’t want to be part of that system. We must question whether or not we want this country to continue being the wealthiest country in the world at the price of raping everybody else," said Stokely Carmichael, Honorary Prime Minister of the BPP. It all began with two college students; Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. They both worked at the North Oakland Neighborhood Anti-Poverty Center, where they also served on the advisory board. To combat police brutality, the advisory board obtained 5,000 signatures in support of the City Council’s setting up a police review board to handle complaints. Seale was taking classes at Oakland City College, while Newton attended both San Francisco Law School and City College. Both institutions were active in the North Oakland Center. With their numerous connections, Newton and Seale decided to start their own organization. “Inspired by the success of the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, in Mississippi, and Carmichael’s calls for separate Black political organizing, they wrote their initial platform statement, the Ten-Point Program. With the help of Huey’s brother, Melvin, they decided on a uniform of blue shirts, black pants, black leather jackets, black berets and openly displayed loaded shotguns. (In his studies, Newton had discovered a California law that allowed carrying a loaded rifle or shotgun, as long as it was publicly displayed and pointed at no one.) What were some of the broader historical factors that led to the founding of the Black Panther Party in 1966? The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) emerged in 1960 as the organizational consolidation of the spontaneous sit-in movement that had begun in Greensboro, North Carolina, when four Black students sat in at a Woolworth’s lunch counter, which refused to serve them. Less than a month after the celebrated March on Washington, in 1963, four Black children died in a bombing at a Birmingham, Alabama church. During the ‘long hot summer’ of 1964, there was unprecedented racial violence in the cities and against hundreds of volunteers who had gone to Mississippi to work on voter registration drives and other projects. On March 7, 1965 (what was to become known as ’Bloody Sunday”) state troopers and Dallas county deputies beat and gassed demonstrators marching for voting rights in Selma, Alabama. This period sparked a reconsideration of non-violence as a tactic in the movement. Bob Moses, a leading SNCC activist in Mississippi, captured the essence of the ideological struggle: “We don’t agree with it, in a sense. The majority of the students are not sympathetic to the idea that they have to love the White people that they are struggling against. But there are a few who have a very religious orientation. And there’s a constant dialogue at meetings about non-violence and the meaning of it. For most of the members it is a question of being able to have a method of attack rather than to be always on the defensive.”
The Black Panther Party For Self-Defense’s Ten-Point Program read: 1. We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our Black community. 2. We want full employment for our people. 3. We want an end to the robbery by the White man of our Black community. 4. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings. 5. We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in present-day society. 6. We want all Black men to be exempt from military service. 7. We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of Black people. 8. We want freedom for all Black men held in federal, state, county, city prisons and jails. 9. We want all Black people, when brought to trial, to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from other Black communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States. 10. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace. And, as our major political objective, a United Nations-supervised plebiscite to be held throughout the Black colony in which only Black colonial subjects will be allowed to participate, for the purpose of determining the will of Black people as to their national destiny… (The Ten-Point Platform concludes with an excerpt from the U.S. Declaration of Independence.) By 1968, the BPP had grown rapidly; transforming itself from a locally-based group to a national one. In 1969, it had over 5,000 members in forty chapters. ‘Survival’ programs were set up to provide immediate relief for local communities to operate in. The most successful of these was the Free Breakfast for Children Program, the brainchild of its chairman, Bobby Seale. “In October, 1968, the BPP newspaper advertised for volunteers to prepare and serve free breakfasts in Berkeley, California. The program spread quickly to churches, community centers, and auditoriums in San Francisco and Oakland. By the end of 1969, breakfasts were being served in nineteen cities under the sponsorship of the national headquarters and twenty-three local affiliates. More than twenty thousand children received full free breakfasts before going to school.”
how I clean my room.
On Oct 4…Avonte Oquendo walked out of his school in Queens in the middle of the day. He’d first approached one exit, where a security guard, with a degree of diligence that will long be debated, asked him where he was going. He didn’t answer; he couldn’t. Avonte is severely autistic, and, at age fourteen, unable to speak or use language. The school was supposed to be watching him. But the guard…one way or the other didn’t stop him from then leaving through a side door. Anyone who’s seen him since is not telling.
[look of the hour]
Recent Archeological findings have discovered ancient west African Mega cities dating back to 500 BC possibly rivaling other early urban civilizations such as Mesopotamia. Long before the coming of Islam and the days of the Songhay, Mali and Ghana Empires.
The Archeologists state they have not seen any signs of war & waring, therefore it seems like they lived in relative peace. Some of the cities were twice the size of Timbuktu (Medieval Timbuktu was twice the size of London).
What is most interesting about this information that it emphasizes how little we know of ancient Africa’s past.
Why does this have so few notes.
For the everyone that says Egyptians were white and for the people that just don’t know, this is a bust of king Tut. Note the color of his skin. Thank you.
We don’t even have to talk about all Egyptians… let’s focus in on King Tut ‘cause that’s a great example. So that’s his bust. As well as
That’s how he was represented when he was alive. These busts were placed in his tomb.
So, how the hell when “researchers” reconstruct him, “race was allegedly ‘HARDEST TO CALL' ” so they made him white….